• Planning is related to scheduling, but:

    • Operators may (often will) have zero duration

    • Can perform an operation as many times as needed

    • Operations have preconditions and postconditions

Blocks World

  • Standard planning environment:

    • Consider blocks A, B, ... in stacks on a table in some way

    • Want to rearrange them some different way

    • Operations:

      • Move a top block to (infinite) table to start a new stack

      • Pick up the top block of some stack and place it on top of a different stack

  • There is an easy algorithm that takes at most 2n operations for n blocks…

General Purpose Planning

  • Describe operators and environment in some generic way

  • Have a GP planner try to find a plan

  • Blocks World instances are hard for GP planners (!?)

Optimal Blocks World

  • Want a shortest restacking plan

  • Turns out this problem is NP-hard (PSPACE-complete!?)

  • Worse yet, finding an approximately shortest plan is NP-hard (?!?)

  • But can solve reasonable-sized instances by… A✶ search!

  • Best planners do big state-space change to reduce search

Advanced Planning

  • Logical formulation of planning problems for GP planners

  • Optimal-cost planning

  • Planning under uncertainty — what if:

    • Environment isn't really known for sure in the future

    • Operators might not do what they're supposed to

Last modified: Wednesday, 14 October 2020, 10:00 PM