## Complete Search

## Intelligence and the Future

Intelligence is partly about "thinking ahead"

A complicated problem is solved a piece at a time, or an action at a time. Steps interact

Looking ahead gets complicated fast

AI has spent a long time thinking about this problem, and has found some fairly fancy techniques

Ultimately P ≠ NP (probably), so must abstract or approximate

## Computers Search Good

A computer can construct future states from current states quickly and perfectly

Humans are bad at this; "easy" AI might want to leverage this

Problems like route-finding, scheduling, planning, puzzle-solving, games, robotics have gone there

Pattern-matching, machine learning, etc can be

*augmented*with search

## State Spaces

A

*state*is a situation. It is static in timeA

*state space*is a graph of situations.The

*neighbors*of a state*s*in a state space are the graph edges — states that can be reached from*s*by some atomic action

## Road Maps and State Spaces

In a fancy road map, the states are junctions on the map. The state space is literally the graph of roads and junctions

An AI could proceed heuristically toward the goal by always choosing the route that gets closer to it

Dead-ends and side-trips are a big problem, though

## Search The Map

To find a short route, it's probably better to look at least a little ahead: traverse the graph a bit and see where you end up

Watch out for backtracking and loops: use a

*stop list*Ultimately, this is BFS / DFS / Dijkstra search

Problem is usually boring for modern computers

## Combinatorial State Spaces

Consider a sliding tile puzzle: what is the state space?

State is particular puzzle configuration

Neighbors are states reachable by moving one tile: each state has 2-4 neighbors (corner, edge, central)

For an

*n × n*puzzle, how many states?*n^2!*(Only half are reachable because parity.)How big is this graph?

`2 2.40e1 3 3.63e5 4 2.09e13 5 1.55e25 6 3.72e41 7 6.08e62`

Won't be examining them all (or half of them)

## Search Strategies

Keyed off some questions

How big is the space?

Need a best solution or just a good one?

Willing to use heuristics?

Need guarantees on solution (quality, existence)?

## Stupid Search

Let's build a sliding-tile puzzle solver the dumb way

We will walk the state space randomly until we run into the answer

http://github.com/pdx-cs-ai/slider

## Stop Lists

Let avoid revisiting old states

We will use a

*stop list*/*closed list*/*tabu list*of states we've already visitedActually sets, not lists, but hey

There will be a lot: memory is a problem